USAGE AREAS OF BORON
Boron and boron products, touching many aspects of life are redesigning
the future of Turkey and the world with its widespread use.
- Wood Protection
- Textile Type Fibreglass
Increasing High Yield in Agricultural Areas with Boron
Plants grow in agricultural areas valued with the touch of boron, and there is a visible increase in yield quality. With its extraordinary effect on the plants, boron is frequently preferred in recent times in agriculture industry. Plants that do not meet with the necessary amount of boron can be developed, however they can not reach the desired quality in fruit and seed production. With the application of boron to the plants, fruit & seed loss is prevented. Within the direction of use of boron, it is ensured that agricultural fields are valued and producers gain high profit with low cost.
High Yield at Low Cost with Boron
Usage dose of the boron which ensures the highest level of yield from agricultural products has a very important place in the development of the plants and the achievement of the desired quality. Incorrect dosages and erroneous applications can lead to undesirable consequences and damage to plants. In the right dosage and application, it helps to give the best quality crops and to the development of agricultural products.
Touch of Boron to Agricultural Industry: Etidot-67
Etidot-67, which was developed in 2010 in R&D projects carried out by Eti Maden’s professional specialists in the industry, is helping agricultural areas to produce high-yield products. Etidot-67, an important plant nutrient produced from the reaction of borax and boric acid, contains 20.8% boron. Etidot-67 is a specially developed product for the agricultural industry. It is dissolved in water and used in soil and leaf applications. It is also preferred as insect pesticides and to protect wood materials from harmful organisms such as fungi.
Natural Cleaning with Boron
Modern detergents derived from petro-chemical products contain many substances. The most important of these materials are;
In detergents, the two main ingredients, active oxygen and chlorine, are used as bleaching agents. The main ingredients used as active oxygen source in the detergent composition are sodium perborate and sodium percarbonate. The main source of chlorine is sodium hypochlorite.
Boron compounds are a natural cleaning agent and have been used since 1800’s. Without applying a chemical process to the boron mine extracted from the earth, with only a physical process, borax product is obtained. Borax is a natural compound that comes in the form of sodium, water, oxygen and boron. Borates, due their properties such as facilitating stain removal and bleaching, stabilizing enzymes, alkali buffering, water softening and improving the performance of materials used as surfactants, have an important place in the cleaning sector and R&D studies are being carried out in order to use them more effectively in the cleaning sector. Considering the disadvantages of detergents from petroleum derivatives to human health and environment, borax steps up with its naturalness.
Borates are used in many different forms of laundry detergents, household or industrial type cleaners and personal care products.
The advantages borate and perborates have on detergents include:
- Alkaline buffering and pH control,
- Water softening (producing a complex soluble calcium complex),
- To improve the performance of the surface active agent,
- To prevent dirt from reattaching to the surface,
- That perborates possess bleaching properties,
- Enzyme stabilization,
- To prevent the reproduction of bacteria and fungi in personal care products.
Eti Maden currently has 4 product types on the market, including general purpose Etimatik Boron Cleaning Product, White, Colours and Tulle.
Industrial Mineral Boron
Powdered substance fed from the iron mine and scrap materials in Turkey and in the World, enabling scrap materials to be reused in the iron-steel industry, resulting from the melting process and called slag; is a side product which does not have wetting and squeezing features and creates problems in transportation and storage because it takes up a lot of space. Slag, which turns into a compact structure with boron additive, becomes able to be used by the removal of the issues in transportation and storage. Slag, obtained with the addition of boron products does not threaten human health and is environmentally sensitive. It helps to save with low storage costs.
Boron, which plays an active role in the emergence of high-quality, highly productive and sustainable products in technological and industrial areas, offers important contributions to metallurgy and material industry. Boron has the ability to form a smooth, sticky, protective and burr-free liquid at high temperatures. Boron and boron products, make all the products they contribute as durable and sustainable manner, especially steel. It is used in the boronizing process, and electrolytic coating which is applied to obtain hard and abrasion resistant surfaces in many metals.
Low Cost, High Performance
Boron and boron products provide saving production by minimizing high costs. In ferroboron state, an iron-boron alloy, it takes the place of high-cost materials used for hardening steel in steel production. Combination of two materials in soldering process gives effective results in application.
Industrial oils obtained through various physical and chemical processes, with the contribution of boron and boron products, reduce friction and wear in industrial machines and vehicles. It helps prolong machine’s life. High temperature resistant boron oils reduces noise generation and prevents noise pollution by improving existing abrasion.
Boron is also used in aerodynamic developments in space and aerospace industries, high speed wing applications, design and development stages of high temperature resistant bodies.
Ceramic Drawing its Strength from Boron
Derived from high-temperature cooking of the mixture of clay and kaolin-like materials formed by the breakage of rocks, ceramic is a material that mankind has been using for many years. With the use of boron and boron products, ceramic reaches a new structure that is more resistant to physical impact and chemicals. Approximately 13% of world boron consumption is realized in the ceramic sector. With the use of boron in ceramic glaze and enamel production, products resistant to heat, chemicals and physical impacts are obtained. Enamels high value added with boron and boron products are generally preferred actively for coating products with metal alloys and glaze is used for coating ceramic products.
Boron-containing ceramic which is frequently preferred in building materials, kitchen utensils and decorative items, is a product that is widely preferred both in the industrial field and everyday life. Ceramic products, we see as tableware in kitchen, ceramic tile and decoration products in bathroom, obtain a smoother appearance with the ceramic glaze in a thin glassy structure with the contribution of boron and boron products. Boron
materials are used in ceramic products that corresponds the demand for wide surface areas in wall tiles. Silica and alumina materials can be baked at high temperature to form glaze. However, since this required heat is both technically difficult and costly, boron is used which is more economic and easy. In this phase boron and boron products, which have low melting temperature, directly contribute to the production of ceramic products at low cost and to be more durable.
Ceramic Renewed with Boron
Boron, which has high melting and bonding properties, reduces glass fluidity and surface tension, making ceramics more resistant to physical impacts and chemical effects. In the process of the aestheticization of ceramic; it helps to obtain vivid and bright colours by ensuring better adhesion of the paint. In ceramic products which are resistant to scratching, breaking and crushing with the addition of boron and boron products, melting and sticking occur at lower temperatures.
Long-Life Wood Protection with Boron Products
Boron compounds are frequently preferred in the wood protection industry in Turkey and in the world. Chemical wood preservation products with many toxic chemical effects, which are restricted in many countries in Europe started to give way to boron protection products that are sensitive to human health and environment. Wood protection products produced with boron compounds are products resistant to harmful biological agents, readily soluble in water and easily applicable.
Boron Protection Products that are Applied on the Wood Easily
Without the need for costly techniques, in the impregnation process carried out by dipping, immersion, brushing, spraying, vacuum or pressurized systems in the interior of wooden and wooden products, boron compounds are used. Boron compounds transform the wood into a strong and durable material, extending its useful life and provides saving. Also, in possible fire situations, since it reduces the intensity of flame to a minimum level compared to other wood protection products, it reduces any damage that may occur to the lowest levels by ensuring the safety of its area. When the wood material is exposed to high temperatures, it is quickly charred by discharging the water within the outer layers quickly. Transmission of heat to the inside from the carbonized outer layers are prevented with boron contribution and it provides slow burning; helps to minimize the loss of life and property by saving time in fire situations for emergency intervention. Due to its solubility in water and high humidity environments, it can be placed in holes drilled on wood in the form of salt rods in wood constructions that is protected or not and it can be applied by spreading to the material by dissolving it with water or damp effect.
Environment Friendly Boron Wood Protection
Wood coatings that reach common use are by transforming into durable, quality and long lasting products with boron protection products, are environmentally friendly products that do not damage the ecological balance. Boron protection products do not contain any threats to human and animal health. It prevents the formation of harmful organisms on wood. It is also used as a protective against fungi, insects, termites and sea pests. In this direction, a long-lasting, durable, environmentally conscious and human-friendly wood protection is ensured with boron products.
Boron wood coatings that provide long-lasting durability to the application area, helps to protect forest areas and reduce tree consumption by extending the service life without maintenance at low cost.
The Shine of the Glass coming from Boron
Boron products produced in Turkey, which possess 73% of world reserves, are widely used in the glass sector both in the domestic market and international market. Boron, which is preferred in many sectors due to its unique properties, is among the important raw materials of glass industry in particular. Glass products are transformed into a product that is heat and chemical resistant with the touch of boron. It is planned to expand the use network of glass, that will reach different usage areas with the contribution of boron, together with ongoing R&D studies.
Borosilicate glass obtained by using boron products are used in various fields such as in glassware products which are frequently used in the kitchen such as glass tray, storage container, teapot and coffee pot which are required to be more resistant to heat and chemicals, on the screen glasses of electronic devices, in lighting fixtures desired to be transformed into a durable state, Solar energy systems, camera lenses, binoculars, in aircraft and automotive industry, in medicine industry to be used in the bottling process of syrup, antibiotics, vitamin pills etc., bottled beverage industry, in production of glass products used in scientific research laboratories.
Environment Friendly Glass Wool
Glass wool produced from glass fibres which are liquidized by heat and converted into an ergonomic structure, achieves a strong and durable structure with additional boron oxide content during the production phase. Glass wool, which is effectively used in heat and sound insulation, is produced in various forms such as blankets, sheets, pipes and casting. It is used on the inner surfaces of walls and concrete, stairs and elevator spaces, in wood, metal and snap fittings, in air conditioner and roof blankets, in external insulation, industrial pipes, heating systems, central heating systems and etc. areas. Glass wool which does not mould, does not scatter, does not decay, does not corrode and rust, is resistant to temperature and moisture and additionally, it can not be deformed by pests and micro-organisms.
Low Cost Textile Type Glass Fibre Resistant to Chemical Reactions
Textile Type Glass Fibre, another glass product formed by the addition of boron, is an industrial product that is produced with low cost, high tensile, resistant to chemical reactions and impacts. In particular, reinforced materials and composites, they are used in sea bots, ski gears, fuel tanks, ships, train wagons, roofing materials, electronic circuit boards, bumpers, mudguard, seat and front panels of automobiles. It also plays an active role in the production of wind panels in the “Green Energy” sector.
Boron Insulation Materials Protect Your Living Space
Insulation materials, which are an important element in heat, sound and fire insulation, are produced from natural materials. Boron insulation materials formed by mixture of cellulose and boron with the addition of boron and boron products, it has an even more effective application area, is widely used in closed areas with its long service life. Boron insulation materials which are harmonious with nature and which save energy in closed areas by avoiding heat change thanks to its strong thermal insulation, do not harm human health in any way and they can be easily applied to all kinds of surfaces and makes comfort in the living area reach to the maximum level. Boron and boron-containing insulation materials create a saving, durable and strong insulation area.
Boron and boron products, which are also important raw materials in sound insulation, In areas such music studios, performance centres, they reduce the noise input-output to the interior and the noise from outside to the minimum level and make places comfortable. In addition to heat and sound insulation, these materials, which also provide fire insulation with the addition of boron, delay the flame formation by preventing the space from meeting with oxygen in possible fire situations. It reduces the smoke emission to a minimum level and prolongs the period of the release of the gases which threaten human health. Boron insulation materials which are widely preferred in textile industry as well, are used in many sectors related to products that are at risk of burning and explosion. Insulation materials containing boron and boron products that are sensitive to the environment, providing confidence and comfort, carry the quality to the highest level in their living spaces.
Affordable and Efficient Insulation
Affordable and long-lived boron insulation materials are manufactured by natural feedstock. Boron insulation materials are dust, heat and water resistant. It can’t be deformed by the damage caused by insects and rodents. It has no carcinogenic effects on human health due to its chemical component-free structure. As a stable and long-lived consumer good, it is immune to corruption, rust and metallic corrosion. It ensures a secure, budget-friendly and comfortable living space by providing heat, noise and fire insulation simultaneously.
Textile Type Fibreglass
Glass Transformation in the Industry: Fibreglass
Among the many product components we use in our daily lives, there are boron products. Textile-type fibreglass which boron products is used are often preferred as an alternative to wood and metal in many industrial areas. Textile type fibreglass, obtained as a result of solidification with physical and chemical processes on glass melt at high temperature, is a lightweight, low cost product that is high tensile, resistant to impact, chemical reactions. Textile type fibreglass which is transformed into a low cost and durable material by the use of boron products, offers a long-lasting use after application without the need for high-cost maintenance.
Low Cost High Productivity
Textile type fibreglass, which is the most consumed product among the materials obtained from boron products is a product that: does not transmit heat and electricity, is very resistant to cracking, expansion, bending, splitting, abrasion and scratching. It easily adapts to difficult and different climatic conditions. At the same time, since heat is transmitted at minimum level, it is often used as insulation material in many sectors. Its durability against physical impacts and light weight, low cost production, makes it widely preferred in textile, construction, automotive, space industry, house appliances, decoration products, military industry, marine etc fields.
Textile Type Fibreglass Developing and Strengthening with Boron
“E-glass” is a textile type fibreglass which is widely used in the industrial field and is an industrial product with low solubility in water. With its low fragility and robust construction demonstrated in the application stages, it meets about 90% of fibreglass consumption of textile type in the world. Textile type fibreglass produced from boron products which makes the main components more durable in many sectors has a wide usage area in: sea boats, ski gears, ships, fuel tanks, train wagons, roofing materials, electronic circuit boards and automobile industry. Textile type fibreglass, which is also preferred in the Green Energy sector, plays an active role in the production of wind panels.
Welfare Provided by Boron
Boron, which are among the most valuable underground resources in Turkey, provides significant contribution to human health in the direction of researches made. Boron needed in low amounts in human body; is a mineral taken from the outside by food and water. In 1981, it was determined that boron products lead to positive effects on the human body in the direction of the researches performed in the health industry. In this direction, boron which is used more and more widely in health industry as well, is used in many treatments and started to give positive results. Boron, that is continued to be proved positive in the human body, reduces fatigue and stress formation to a minimum when consumed through food. Also it is used actively in the treatment of prostate cancer prevention, sterilization of eye inflammations, in making ointments and especially in the treatment of brain cancer.
Boron Used Actively in Treatments
In researches in the health sector where boron products are used, it was observed that the bones are strengthened due boron increases absorption of copper, magnesium and other elements in the human body. This helps to reduce the pain and strengthen the bone structure. Boron which regulates the calcium, magnesium and phosphorus balance in human metabolism, also contributes to the development of muscle and brain functions by bringing the phosphorus balance to the optimum level. In addition, boron is widely used in osteoporosis treatments, allergic diseases, psychiatry, bone development, arthritis (in the treatment of inflammatory rheumatism) and menopause treatment. By using Boron Neutron Capture method which is used effectively in the treatment of brain cancer treatment, helps to selectively destroy unwell cells and keep damage to healthy cells to a minimum.
Boron Touch to Health
Boron which is an essential element in the lives of the living beings with scientific researches which are still in progress; has become increasingly important in the health sector with the contributions it has made to human health. In the statement made by the World Health Organization (WHO); it was determined that adult healthy individuals could consume 1-13 mg boron by feeding. Boron can be taken from fruits such as apples, pears, plums, dates and vegetables such as beans, chickpeas, lentils etc., is also present in the contents of pasteurized milk. Due to the unique properties of boron products in nature, it is almost impossible to replace it. Research results nowadays show that a person needs a certain amount of boron element on a daily basis.
Boron as the Renewable Energy of Future
Decrease of reserves of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and increase in demand for these resources, are causing the search for alternative energy sources. The continuity of technological developments and the ever-increasing world population lead to the need for excessive amounts of energy. In this direction, researches on energy source and production gain importance. Production and consumption of primary energy resources negatively affect natural life, environment, human health, and country and world economies. The energy needs of the future can be sustained and renewed with the effective contribution of boron products and by creating alternatives that are sensitive to natural life they are in an important position in the energy sector.
Energy Strengthened and Valued with Boron
Considered among the energy sources of the future and still researches are in progress, the fuel cells that converts hydrogen to electric energy, has a very important place. Scientific research on the production, transportation, storing, fuel cell development, system integration in usage areas etc. regarding hydrogen in the R&D phase continues to be developed. Boron, which allows the hydrogen energy to be used with high efficiency, is among the major raw materials in the development of sodium borohydride fuel cells. In addition, sodium borohydride is widely used in purification chemicals, cellulose bleaching, cleaning of metal surfaces, precious metal recovery in metal surface treatment, and cleaning of heavy metals from waste waters.
Boron Touch to the Energy of the Future
Boron, contributing to the creation of sustainable and highly efficient energy sources for your future, adds value to the energy sector with sodium borohydride with its renewable structure. Sodium borohydride is a widely preferred product in electronic devices, vehicles and electric/heat production plants, fuel cells used for military and civil purposes. Since boron may store 10,8% hydrogen and is not flammable or explosive and its hydrogen dispense reaction may be controlled and with similar features it provides ease of use.
The development of sodium borohydride production technology, which is one of the important raw materials of hydrogen storage technology which R&D studies are ongoing, is very important in terms of the efficient use of boron, the most valuable mine of Turkey, operated and produced by Eti Maden.
Boron in the Every Aspect of Life
Boron products transformed into high value-added products by Eti Maden, have a widespread use in conjunction with ongoing R&D work. Boron and boron products are used in construction and cement industry for strengthening and insulation purposes in insulation materials. Insulation materials containing boron and boron products that make the structures more robust and heat resistant, are used in making lightweight and low cost products.
In nuclear applications, boron steels, boron carbides and titanboron alloys are extensively used in atomic reactors. It is preferred as a neutron absorbent of boron steel which is very resistant to rusting. Approximately every boron atom absorbs a neutron. Boron and boron products are also used for control system of atomic reactors and cooling pools and reactors alarm closing. Cholemanite is also used for storage of nuclear wastes.
In the automobile industry; boron used in making airbags and antifreeze is used to ensure immediate inflation of the airbags. At the time of impact, the mixture of elemental boron and potassium nitrate is activated by electronic sensor. Once the system is activated; the total time the airbags should be in motion is 40 milliseconds. It is also used as antifreeze in automobiles and also in hydraulic systems.
Boron and boron products are widely used in missiles and flight fuels. It is used as fuel additive material in special applications.
In solid and cell fuels R&D studies on cell fuel producing energy from sodium borohydride are continuing. Hydrogen is present in the sodium borohydride chemical bonds and the catalyst releases the hydrogen. The basic principle in this production is the reaction of water with borax. Hydrogen produced from this reaction can be fed directly to internal combustion engines or may also be used in cell fuels.
Also, boron products are preferred in a number of areas such as fibre optics, cosmetics, rubber and plastic industries, photography, fireworks and similar explosive substances, oil paints, sands and abrasives, composite materials, magnetic devices, advanced technology researches and mummification.